Indian Universities: Central, State, Deemed And Private: An Overview
Posted on : 20,December , 2016 - Tue , 04:14:38am

Indian Universities: Central, State, Deemed and Private: An overview

Education is imparting knowledge, exploring skills in preferred areas and possessing career of one’s own choice. Merely, holding a degree is not enough. One has to understand that, the degree gained, shows the parameters of skills, must know kind of verdict from others and a better understanding of the field which has been chosen.  Now, when it comes to higher education, we all get confused. Confused about University status, Infrastructure, Quality education, and Research facilities.

With few exceptions, due to their renowned status, other Indian universities create confusion. The student does not aware of university status i.e. if it is fake or UGC recognized. You have across many times with words like deemed university, private university, central or state university. How do the universities get that status and When to call a university Central/ State/Deemed/Private? To understand this, first you need to understand which statutory body gives the recognition to a university.

In India, It is awarded by University Grant Commission.  UGC, under Ministry of Human Resource Development, had been set by the  Union Government in 1956, under UGC Act, 1956.  UGC is authorized for maintaining the standards of quality higher education in the country. It gives recognition to the universities in India and allocates funds to universities and colleges.
There are four types of Universities in India in a broad understanding:

  1. Central University
  2. State University
  3. Deemed university
  4. Private university


Central Universities:

A Parliamentary act establishes a central university and a central university comes under the direct control of the Department of Higher Education (DHE) under  Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) of India.  A total number of central universities in India are  46 as per the latest update in the year 2016. In addition to above norms, Central Universities also adhere to the Central Universities Act, 2009, which regulates their purpose, powers governance, etc. There are also fifteen different Professional Councils are established in addition to controlling the other aspects of accreditation and coordination.

Significant features:

  1. Significant admission procedure
  2. Process own Syllabus
  3. A central university conducts its own exams
  4. Award degrees to the students


State Universities:

State universities are established, run and funded by the state government. It is established by a state legislative assembly act. There are 342 state universities in the country, according to a UGC consolidated list.

Significant features: 

  1. Own admission procedure
  2. Conducts exams
  3. Own syllabus
  4. Grants degrees to the students


Deemed Universities:

“Deemed” is an Autonomous status, granted to a university by DHE under MHRD, on the advice of UGC. Deemed  Universities have the benefit of full autonomy or liberty in running courses, Draft their own syllabus,  do their admissions and craft fee structure. Some Deemed  Universities can also grant degrees on their own. They can get the status of a full- fledged University if they perform well. There are 125 deemed-to-be universities in the country, according to a UGC consolidated list.

Significant features:

  1. They have their own admission procedure
  2. They do decide  syllabus
  3. Carry out their own exams
  4. Deemed University may or may not grant degrees to the students



Private Universities:

Private universities are also UGC approved institutes. However, Private universities are not privileged to get the fund from central or state. They can grant degrees. With the prior approval of the University Grants Commission and after completing five years of successful run, a private university can have off-campus centers.  A  private university is always headed by ‘President’ or ‘Chairperson’.

All the private universities must adhere to UGC rules and regulations for operations As per a ruling by the Supreme Court of India. The UGC regularly sends committees to inspect private universities.

Significant features: 

  1. Own admission procedure
  2. Decide their own syllabus
  3. Run their own exams
  4. Grant degrees to the students


Indian Universities in Tabular form


State Name or Union Territories No. of State Universities No. of Private Universities No. of Deemed Universities No. of Central Universities
Andhra Pradesh 20 0 7 0
Arunachal Pradesh 0 7 1 1
Assam 12 4 0 2
Bihar 15 0 2 3
Chandigarh 1 0 1 0
Chhattisgarh 13 8 0 1
Delhi 7 0 12 5
Goa 1 0 0 0
Gujarat 28 28 2 1
Haryana 14 19 5 1
Himachal Pradesh 4 17 0 1
Jammu and Kashmir 7 0 0 2
Jharkhand 7 6 2 1
Karnataka 25 12 13 1
Kerala 13 0 2 1
Madhya Pradesh 21 22 3 2
Maharashtra 21 6 20 1
Manipur 0 1 0 2
Meghalaya 0 8 0 1
Mizoram 0 1 0 1
Nagaland 0 2 0 1
Odisha 15 3 0 1
Puducherry 0 0 1 1
Punjab 9 13 2 1
Rajasthan 22 42 8 1
Sikkim 0 5 0 1
Tamil Nadu 22 0 29 2
Telangana 16 0 2 3
Tripura 1 1 0 1
Uttar Pradesh 26 28 9 5
Uttarakhand 10 11 4 1
West Bengal 26 8 1 1
Total 356 252 126 47


Autonomous Institutes & Colleges:

Autonomous institutes and colleges come under the administrative control of Department of Higher Education (DHE), MHRD. They exert control over their syllabus, admission procedure, courses offered and, daily operations. Autonomous Institutes and Autonomous Colleges are different from each other. Let’s have a look:

Autonomous Institutes: They enjoy full autonomy or independence in deciding courses, syllabus, admissions and fees like deemed university. They can award diplomas ( Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs)). And if the IIM Bill is passed by the Parliament, IIMs may also be allowed to grant degrees.
Some autonomous institutes award degrees as well As Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), etc even though they are not considered universities.

Autonomous Colleges: An autonomous college needs to be affiliated to a certain university. Autonomous colleges do not award their own degree, the degree is always awarded by the university it is affiliated with. However,  autonomous colleges can run their own admission procedure and exams But they cannot introduce new course or diplomas.

Significant features:

  1. Have their own admission procedure
  2. Draft their own syllabus
  3. Run  their own exam
  4. They may or may not grant a diploma or degree to students


Another categories of Indian Universities

There is some more recognized institute which does not fall any of above categories but considers huge important at the national level:
  • Unitary Universities:

Aligarh Muslim University, Banaras Hindu University, and Jawaharlal Nehru University are few names that come from unitary universities. They concentrate on Postgraduate course and research works nad have a single large campus. Some run undergraduate programs as well.
  • Institutions of National Importance:

The “Institutions of national importance” are also designated by Acts of Parliament. There are  12  institutions had been established so far, which include the six Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and the Indian Statistical Institute.
  • Affiliating Universities:

An Affiliating university has a central campus and gives affiliations to colleges, schools or institutes which are outside the campus in different districts. It may also have university/colleges (within the campus) and constituent colleges (outside the campus). There are more than 9200 colleges affiliated to universities.They are located in districts within the jurisdiction of the university as specified in the Acts. The University Grants Commission has now established the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) in accordance with Section 12CCC o the UGC Act, 1956, to assess the quality of education imparted by universities and colleges and grade them accordingly. Most of the Indian universities are of the affiliating type including big universities like  Calcutta, Mumbai, Bangalore, Osmania etc. Each of these colleges has more than 250 colleges under its wings and the number of students have exceeds approx one lakh.
  • Subject Universities:

This a new trend. A  University which is subject oriented and one such name is an agricultural university which is in every state and so are the colleges of forestry, veterinary and animal husbandry, and home science which is affiliated to different universities in the State like an agriculture university is 28 in numbers.
  • Open Universities:

You must have heard the name of IGNOU (Indira Gandhi National Open University). There are approximately 60 open universities in the country which are giving distance education and quite popular. This is a relatively new phenomenon and greatly appreciated. They provide education exclusively through distance learning mode.
Hope that all information is relevant to your querry for which you are searching about indian universities and you found that there are total 781 Indian Universities which provides different- different undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD programs.

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